62.
Lamotte's Roundleaf Bat
(Hipposideros lamottei)
CR
Overview
Lamotte’s roundleaf bat is characterised by an elaborately modified nose and muzzle which form leaf-like projections that are thought to help focus echolocation signals emitted through the nose. The many and various modifications of the nose leaf are thought to be adaptations to specific modes and frequencies of nasal echolocation. Very little is currently known about the life history of this rare and threatened animal. It is known from a single locality close to Mount Nimba. Mining and deforestation are thought to be the main threats to its existence.

 
Urgent Conservation Actions
There is a need to enforce the protection of the area in which this species occurs. Additional surveys are needed to learn more about the distribution, natural history and threats to this species.
Distribution
Guinea
Evolutionary Distinctiveness
Order: Chiroptera
Family: Hipposideridae
Lamotte’s roundleaf bat belongs to the Hipposideridae, a family of Old World leaf-nosed bats. A recent study employing primarily nuclear sequence data suggests that the group, including Hipposideridae (with the exception of Nycteridae), is more closely related to flying foxes (Megachiroptera) than to other microbats (Microchiroptera). This family is exclusively Old World in distribution, with 66 species from 9 genera currently recognised.

A systematic analysis, based on morphological features, suggested that the genus Hipposideros is actually composed of three distinct groups, which may deserve generic status. In general, relationships among hipposiderid bats are poorly understood and additional research is needed to fully understand the pattern of evolutionary history in this group. These bats are known from the Eocene to Oligocene in the fossil record.
Description
Size: 
Head and body Length 2.8 -11 cm (Hipposideridae)
This family of bats is characterized by elaborate modifications of the nose and muzzle, forming leaf-like projections that are thought to help focus echolocation signals emitted through the nose.
Ecology
The ecology of this species is unknown. Hipposiderids are generally insectivorous, with many capturing insects in flight and returning to a roost to eat captured prey.

These bats seem to fly with their mouths closed, emitting ultrasonic pulses through the nose. The many and various modifications of the nose leaf are presumably adaptations to specific modes and frequencies of nasal echolocation.
Habitat
Little is known about the habitat preferences of this species. It has only been recorded with certainty from two localities on Mount Nimba, one in lowland tropical moist forest, and a second in afromontane savanna. It has also been collected roosting within a natural cave (Grotte de Blandé) and a small, abandoned mining tunnel (Pierré Richaud), suggesting that it roosts in caves and similar habitats.
Distribution
Lamotte’s roundleaf bat is known only from Mount Nimba in the border area of Guinea, Liberia and Côte d'Ivoire. On Mount Nimba it has been recorded from the localities of Grotte de Blandé and Pierré Richaud in Guinea. It has been recorded between 500 and 1,400 m asl.
Population Estimate
Unknown. Only six specimens are currently known from two localities.
Population Trend
Decreasing.
Status
Classified as Critically Endangered (CR B1ab (i,ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab (i,ii,iii,iv,v)) on the 2010 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
Threats
Mount Nimba contains an exceptionally high-grade iron-ore deposit, for which extensive open cast mining is taking place. Mining is underway and planned within the species’ limited range and is likely to be the main threat to these bats. The species is probably also threatened by deforestation in parts of its range, and may be impacted by indiscriminate subsistence hunting of bats for food, which also occurs in caves on Mount Nimba. This species appears to have an extremely small distribution, making it particularly vulnerable to these threats
Conservation Underway
The species is present within the Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve World Heritage Site. However, no specific conservation actions are underway.
Conservation Proposed
There is a need to enforce the protection of the area in which this species occurs. Additional surveys are needed to learn more about the distribution, natural history and threats to this species.
References
Bonaccorso, F. J. & McNab, B.K. 2003. Standard energetics of leaf-nosed bats (Hipposideridae): its relationship to intermittent- and protracted-foraging tactics in bats and birds. Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology, Volume 173(1): 43-53.

Fahr, J. and Ebigbo, N. M. 2003. A conservation assessment of the bats of the Simandou Range, Guinea, with the first record of Myotis welwitschii (Gray, 1866) from West Africa. Acta Chiropterologica 5(1): 125-141.

Mickleburgh, S., Hutson, A.M., Bergmans, W. & Fahr, J. 2008. Hipposideros lamottei. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 15 November 2010.

Vallo, P. et al. 2008. Variation of mitochondrial DNA in the Hipposideros caffer complex (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae) and its taxonomic implications. Acta Chiropterologica, 10(2): 193–206.

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