Steller's Sea Cow
(Hydrodamalis gigas)
Steller’s sea cow is one of the few very large mammal species to have died out during the recent historical period. This species was also the only sirenian adapted to live in cold waters, and in historical times was found in shallow waters around the coast of the Commander Islands. This last relict population was discovered by the Russian naturalist Georg Steller, the only scientist ever to study the species before its extinction, when he was shipwrecked on Bering Island for nine months from November 1741 to August 1742. The species was wiped out by wasteful overhunting by overwintering Russian fur hunters within 27 years of its discovery.
Urgent Conservation Actions
This giant marine mammal was rapidly driven to extinction by massive amounts of wasteful overexploitation - at over 7 times the sustainable hunting limit.
Steller’s sea cow occurred in historical times around Bering Island and Copper Island in the Commander islands of the western Bering Sea.
Media from ARKive
ARKive image - Steller's sea cow skull (left) next to a dugong skull (right)
ARKive image - Mounted skeleton of the Steller's sea cow
About the species
The last population was discovered when a Russian explorer was stranded on Bering Island in 1741, at that time it is thought that 1000-2000 individuals remained. The crew slaughter the animals for meat and for skin to use as leather. Steller’s sea cow is thought to have become extinct by 1768 although there were later unconfirmed reports of its presence in various areas. This species is classified as extinct by the IUCN.

In the late Pleistocene this genus evidently occurred all around the rim of the North Pacific from Japan to California. Hunting by primitive people and climate change restricted its range to the Bering Sea. Pleistocene remains of this species have been found on Amchitka Island in the Aleutians and in Monterey Bay off California.
Evolutionary Distinctiveness
Order: Sirenia
Family: Dugongidae
Steller's sea cow was the last surviving representative of a significant sirenian evolutionary radiation in the cold-water conditions of the North-Pacific during the late Tertiary. This lineage diverged from the dugong, now the only living member of the Dugongidae, during the late Oligocene (24-29 million years ago).
Description, ecology and habitat
The giant sea cow had dark brown or grey, hairless skin with a very thick rough outer epidermis similar in appearance to tree bark, which was parasitized by many small crustaceans. Its head was small in proportion to the body, and the forelimbs were also relatively small and flipper-like. The tail had two pointed lobes, as in the living dugong. There was no trace of any hind limbs. The species had no functional teeth, but instead had pads of keratin with corresponding v-shaped ridges in the upper and lower jaws, which it used to grind its food.

Although Steller provided no numerical population or life-history data on the sea cows he observed, a 1741 population of ?1,500 animals was suggested by Leonhard Stejneger, who visited Bering Island from 1882-1883. More recent population estimates have suggested that this population may have consisted of 2,000 animals. Steller's observations suggest that sea cow pairs were monogamous and family groups remained together. He also recorded that sea cows were unable to dive, and were dependent upon shallow inshore kelp beds for food, browsing slowly like cows. The species was apparently fearless of humans, and attempted to aid individuals being attacked by hunters.
Factors leading to extinction
However, the sea cow's narrow relictual distribution was not readily apparent to early naturalists. The possibility of the continued survival of the species in other remote parts of the North Pacific, a region well away from familiar Western European trading or whaling routes, was suggested by several scientists during the nineteenth century, notably the Finnish scientist Adolf Nordenskiöld. Leonhard Stejneger’s eighteen-month stay on Bering Island from 1882-1883 partly served to assess Nordenskiöld’s claims for the sea cow's continued survival, and concluded that a supposed sea-cow reported from Bering Island in 1854 was in fact a stray female narwhal.

Several scientists have recently proposed that hunting alone was insufficient to wipe out sea cows, and that this extinction event was actually driven largely by the removal of their food source due to a sea urchin population explosion, triggered by the contemporaneous extirpation of local sea otter populations by Russian hunters. Removing sea otters from nearshore marine environments generates an alternate stable community dominated by sea urchins, which largely eliminate shallow-water kelps on which sea cows would have fed. However, hunting records from eighteenth century Russian expeditions to the Commander Islands have allowed historical levels of sea cow hunting to be modelled. This indicates that sea cows were indeed massively and wastefully overexploited, being hunted at over seven times the sustainable limit; a mean of 123.3 individuals/year were killed between 1743 and 1763. Environmental changes caused by sea otter declines are therefore extremely unlikely to have contributed to this extinction event.

Prehistoric human hunting elsewhere across its North Pacific range is believed to have restricted Steller's sea cow to the uninhabited Commander Islands by the late Holocene. It is generally thought that the last relict population of sea cows around the Commander Islands was rapidly exterminated by direct overharvesting by Russian fur hunters, who used the islands as regular stopping-off points to stock up on supplies following their discovery in 1741. The species was a tempting target for hunters due to its large size, slow movements and apparent fearlessness. Sea cow meat was easily prepared and extremely tasty, blubber was used for cooking and lamp oil, milk from females was drunk or used for butter, and the skin was used as leather for shoes, belts and boats. One early report states that one sea cow could feed 33 men for a month, and it was customary to store sea cow meat to provision ongoing voyages of at least 12 months. Such provisioning also helped eradicate other insular vertebrates, notably the dodo and several giant tortoise species. These records also suggest that five times as many animals were killed as were actually utilized, through wasteful hunting methods; speared animals were typically allowed to swim away in the hope they would later die and float to shore. The mining engineer Petr Yakovlev, who overwintered on Bering Island in 1754-1755, displayed unusual awareness of extinction by anticipating the sea cow’s disappearance through wasteful overexploitation, and unsuccessfully requesting an ukase [Russian edict or decree] from the Bol’sheretsk Chancellery prohibiting further hunting. However, hunting continued and the last sea cow was killed around 1768 on Bering Island. Another species found only on the Commander Islands, the flightless spectacled cormorant (Phalacrocorax perspicillatus), was also hunted to extinction shortly afterwards (Steller wrote that 'one single bird was sufficient for three starving men').
Anderson, P. 1995. Competition, predation, and the evolution and extinction of Steller’s sea cow, Hydrodamalis gigas. Marine Mammal Science 11: 391-394.

Domning, D. 1976. An ecological model for Late Tertiary sirenian evolution in the North Pacific Ocean. Systematic Zoology 25: 352-362.

Domning, D. 1978. Sirenian evolution in the North Pacific Ocean. University of California Publications in Geological Sciences 118: 1-176.

Domning, D. 1994. A phylogenetic analysis of the Sirenia. Proceedings of the San Diego Societyof Natural History 29: 177-189.

Turvey, S.T. and Risley, C.L. 2006. Modelling the extinction of Steller's sea cow. Biology Letters 2: 94-97

if you can provide new information to update this species account or to correct any errors, please email us at

Forum comments

There are as yet no comments for this species.

Add a comment

You must log in to post. If you don't have a login, it's easy to register.