81.
Chiapan Climbing Rat
(Tylomys bullaris)
CR
Overview
Climbing rats superficially resemble large specimens of the black rat. However, they are much more distinct, having separated from most other rodents about 24 million years ago. Very little is known about this species. Its hind feet are modified for climbing, suggesting that it is probably an arboreal species. It is considered Critically Endangered by the IUCN since it is known from a single locality and is expected to decline.
Urgent Conservation Actions
No official conservation recommendations have been made.
Distribution
Known only from the type locality in Chiapas (extreme southern Mexico).
Media from ARKive
ARKive image - Chiapan climbing-rat specimen
ARKive image - Chiapan climbing-rat specimen, dorsal view
ARKive image - Chiapan climbing-rat specimen
Evolutionary Distinctiveness
Order: Rodentia
Family: Cricetidae
There are seven species in the genus Tylomys (climbing rats). Previously classed as murid rodents (family Muridae), these species are now generally placed in the family Cricetidae. The Cricetidae is a large, extremely diverse family of muroid rodents that is estimated to have diverged from the Muridae around 24 million years ago. It contains six subfamilies: the Arvicolinae (lemmings, voles, and muskrat), Cricetinae (hamsters), Lophiomyinae (crested rat), Neotominae (North American rats and mice), Sigmodontinae (New World rats and mice), and Tylomyinae (vesper rats and climbing rats).
Description
Size: 
Head and body length: 170-255 mm
Tail length: 200-250 mm
Weight: Unknown
Climbing rats superficially resemble large specimens of the black rat (Rattus rattus). They usually have greyish or brownish upper parts and whitish underparts. The feet are brown or russet and the toes are white or brown. The tail is dark brown to blackish. The tail is slender and scantily haired and the ears are large and naked. The feet are broad and short, and the hind feet appear to be suited to an arboreal life.
Ecology
Virtually nothing is known about the ecology of this species. Its hind feet are modified for climbing, which suggests that it is probably arboreal.
Habitat
Preferred habitats for climbing rats are heavily forested areas, often around rocky ledges. Specimens have been collected both up in the trees and on the ground.
Distribution
Known only from the type locality in Chiapas (extreme southern Mexico).
Population Estimate
Unknown.
Population Trend
Unknown.
Status
Classified as Critically Endangered (CR B1ab(iii,v)) on the 2010 Red List of Threatened Species.
Threats
Known from a single locality and expected to decline.
Conservation Underway
There do not appear to be any conservation measures in place for this species.
Conservation Proposed
No official conservation recommendations have been made.
References
Álvarez-Castañeda, S.T. & Castro-Arellano, I. 2008. Tylomys bullaris. In: 2010 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.Version 2010.4. Downloaded on 14 November 2010.

Nowak, R.M. 1999. Walker's Mammals of the World. Sixth edition. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London.

Distribution map based on data provided by the IUCN Global Mammal Assessment.

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