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12. Javan Rhinoceros

Rhinoceros sondaicus


The Javan rhino is one of two rhino species to only have one horn.

As with all five existing species of rhino, the largest threat they face is poaching to fuel the international rhino horn trade. This combined with degraded and lost habitat, has left the Javan rhino Critically Endangered with less than 100 individuals left in the wild. They may only exist in one isolated population in the Ujung Kulon National Park in Java; east of Jakarta. There are only two other species in the Rhinoceros genus, which the Javan rhino is a part of – and only five extant species in the Rhinoceros family. Rhinos, along with equids and tapirs, are the only surviving members of an ancient and formerly diverse group of ungulates, which originated around 50 million years ago. Although these populations are now protected in national parks, they remain at risk from poaching, and the small population sizes mean that they are extremely vulnerable to disease and natural disasters.

  • Order: Perissodactyla
  • Family: Rhinocerotidae
  • Population: <100
  • Trend: unknown
  • Size: 3-3.2m
  • Weight: 1,500-2,000kg

EDGE Score

EDGE Score: 6.04 (?)
ED Score: 25.33 (?)
GE / IUCN Red List (?)
Not Evaluated Data Deficient Least Concern Near Threatened Vulnerable Endangered Critically Endangered Extinct in the Wild Extinct


Formerly widespread in south-east Asia, they are now confined to two widely separate locations. The Indonesian subspecies if found in the Ujung Kulon National Park in Java, while the Vietnamese subspecies is restricted to a small population at Cat Tien National Park in Vietnam.

Habitat and Ecology

The Javan Rhino inhabit dense lowland rainforests with a good supply of water, plentiful mud wallows, salt licks, and tall grass and reed beds. They are predominantly browsers, feeding on shoots, twigs, young foliage and fallen fruit, although it can also graze on various species of grass. They are largely solitary animals with loosely defined territories. Females become sexually mature at about 3-4 years, with males maturing slightly later. The rate of reproduction of this species is relatively slow, with females giving birth to a single calf every 4-5 years.

Find out more

Loading species distribution map...

This wordcloud illustrates the threats facing this species. The size of each word indicates the extent of a species range that is affected by that threat (larger size means a greater area is affected). The colour of the word indicates how much that threat impacts the species (darker shades of red mean the threat is more severe).

Crops Hunting Logging Native species

Threat wordcloud key:

Small area affected
Large area affected
Least severe
Most severe
Severity unknown
Source: The IUCN List of Threatened Species. Version 2017.1.
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