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28. Lithophyllon ranjithi


This endangered coral species has a range which is restricted to one small area off the coast of north-eastern Borneo where it is easily misidentified as a closely related species, Lithophyllon undulatum.

There is a severe lack of species-specific information for this elusive mushroom coral due to its small range and it being relatively new to science as it was only discovered in 2003.

Coral reefs within South East Asia and the Coral Triangle are subject to intensive and destructive fishing activities such as fish bombing. The resulting damage on reefs, and on corals specifically can be devastating. This, combined with the ever increasing threat of climate change and coral bleaching due to warming oceans puts many coral species in this area of the world at great threat.

  • Order: Scleractinia
  • Family: Fungiidae
  • Population: Unknown
  • Trend: decreasing
  • Colony Size: Unknown
  • Depth Range (m): 10-20

EDGE Score

EDGE Score: 4.07 (?)
ED Score: 6.35 (?)
GE / IUCN Red List (?)
Not Evaluated Data Deficient Least Concern Near Threatened Vulnerable Endangered Critically Endangered Extinct in the Wild Extinct


L.ranjithi‘s range is extremely restricted as it is only found off the coast of northeastern Borneo, situated within the Coral Triangle.

Habitat and Ecology

When encountered this species is typically below 10m and on hard or rocky substrate.

The reproductive pattern of this particular species is unknown. Within the Fungiidae family, the majority of analysed species are either male or female and mating tends to be via synchronized mass spawning events in which huge numbers of eggs and sperm are released into the open ocean.

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This wordcloud illustrates the threats facing this species. The size of each word indicates the extent of a species range that is affected by that threat (larger size means a greater area is affected). The colour of the word indicates how much that threat impacts the species (darker shades of red mean the threat is more severe).

Urban development Industrial development Tourism Extreme temperatures Extreme weather Shipping Fishing Recreation Invasive species Native species Wastewater Industry Agriculture Air pollution

Threat wordcloud key:

Small area affected
Large area affected
Least severe
Most severe
Severity unknown
Source: The IUCN List of Threatened Species. Version 2017.1.
Available at:

Choo Poh Leem

  • Project name: Marine Spatial Planning for EDGE coral species in Semporna, Sabah
  • Project site: Semporna Priority Conservation Area (PCA), Malaysia
  • Active: 2016 - ongoing
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