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16. White-shouldered Ibis

Pseudibis davisoni


The White-shouldered ibis is a wading bird of the Threskiornithidae family, possessing the long, downward curved bill typical of this family.

Its long, down-curved bill is perfectly adapted for foraging in water and mud and for probing in cracks in dry ground. Described as the most threatened water bird in Southeast Asia, this once widespread ibis declined rapidly during the 20th century. This was due to the combined effects of deforestation, drainage of wetlands, hunting, general disturbance, and the intensification of agricultural practices in rural areas. This critically endangered species now survives as an extremely small and fragmented population, estimated at just 670 adults. Disturbance and persecution are thought to pose the greatest threats today, making recovery of this species almost entirely dependent on change in human behaviour.

  • Order: Pelecaniformes
  • Family: Threskiornithidae
  • Population: 1,000
  • Trend: decreasing
  • Size: 75-85cm

EDGE Score

EDGE Score: 5.63 (?)
ED Score: 16.34 (?)
GE / IUCN Red List (?)
Not Evaluated Data Deficient Least Concern Near Threatened Vulnerable Endangered Critically Endangered Extinct in the Wild Extinct


This species is patchily distributed across many sites in northern and eastern Cambodia, southern Vietnam, extreme southern Laos, and east Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo).

Habitat and Ecology

This species’ inhabit wetlands, grasslands, and slow-flowing watercourses. It also frequents open, level, lowland forest subject to seasonal flooding, such as the deciduous forests in Indochina. They are active during the day, and predominantly a tactile feeder, submerging their long down-curved bills into water and mud and probing cracks in dry ground. They prey on insects, snails, worms, larvae, pupae, tadpoles, small crustaceans, lizards, small mammals and birds.

Find out more

Loading species distribution map...

This wordcloud illustrates the threats facing this species. The size of each word indicates the extent of a species range that is affected by that threat (larger size means a greater area is affected). The colour of the word indicates how much that threat impacts the species (darker shades of red mean the threat is more severe).

Urban development Droughts Crops Livestock Hunting Gathering Logging Work Fire

Threat wordcloud key:

Small area affected
Large area affected
Least severe
Most severe
Severity unknown
Source: The IUCN List of Threatened Species. Version 2017.1.
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