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Cebu Brown-dove

Phapitreron frontalis


The Cebu Brown-dove is endemic to the island of Cebu in the Philippines.

This species had not been observed since 1892 and therefore had been considered possibly extinct, but between 2007 and 2012 there have been reports of this species found on several occasions. In November 2004, two possible individuals were observed in Alcoy Forest. This species is part of the Brown-dove genus Phapitreron, which diverged from all other species of birds around 15.7 million years ago, during the Neogene period. The species’ family Columbidae diverged from all other bird families 32.7 million years ago. In the 1980s, the small amount of forest remaining on Cebu was being rapidly cleared. Now only 0.03% of its original cover remains and even the most degraded secondary habitats are scarce. The remaining tracts of forest are threatened by illegal settlement, road construction, shifting cultivation, illegal logging, and charcoal production and mining activities. The Central Cebu National Park was declared a Strict Protection Zone in 1996, but management of this area has been ineffective.

  • Order: Columbiformes
  • Family: Columbidae
  • Population: <50
  • Trend: decreasing
  • Size: 27cm

EDGE Score

EDGE Score: 5.24 (?)
ED Score: 10.8 (?)
GE / IUCN Red List (?)
Not Evaluated Data Deficient Least Concern Near Threatened Vulnerable Endangered Critically Endangered Extinct in the Wild Extinct


This species is only known from the island of Cebu, in the Philippines.

Habitat and Ecology

This species is said to prefer hill and montane primary forests.

Find out more

This wordcloud illustrates the threats facing this species. The size of each word indicates the extent of a species range that is affected by that threat (larger size means a greater area is affected). The colour of the word indicates how much that threat impacts the species (darker shades of red mean the threat is more severe).

Urban development Crops Mining Roads/Rail Logging

Threat wordcloud key:

Small area affected
Large area affected
Least severe
Most severe
Severity unknown
Source: The IUCN List of Threatened Species. Version 2017.1.
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