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Cebu Flowerpecker

Dicaeum quadricolor


In the late 1800s, this species was known from only two localities in Cebu, where it was incredibly rare.

This species was believed to be extinct due to extensive habitat clearance; with only 0.03% of the original forest cover was left in the 1990s. However, birdwatchers saw this bird again in 1992.

Its’ name quadicolor refers to the four colours of plumage that the males exhibit around its body, which includes blue, red, yellow and white. This species is frugivorous, eating small fruits and flowers.

This species is part of the Dicaeidae family of flowerpeckers, which diverged from all other species 21 million years ago, in the Neogene period.

Unfortunately, the very few remaining tracts of forest in Cebu are still threatened by illegal settlement, road construction, shifting cultivation, logging and other human activities. Interspecific competition with D. australe may also have accelerated this species’ decline. Nug-as Forest is managed and protected by three organisations with Community-based Forest Management Agreements with the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. From 1999 until 2004, the Cebu Biodiversity Conservation Foundation conducted habitat rehabilitation activities using native species and forest protection activities, controlling timber poaching and forest clearing and encouraging the regeneration of secondary growth areas. These measures should increase the suitable habitat areas for this species.

Recently, the species has garnered stronger support for its conservation most significantly from the Provincial Government Unit of Cebu Province in partnership with the Philippines Biodiversity Conservation Foundation. From 2014 to date, Philippines Biodiversity Conservation Foundation implements conservation programs on forest protection, habitat rehabilitation, conservation awareness, capacity building and research in these areas. A highlight of the conservation of this species will be the development of the Cebu Provincial Biodiversity Strategic Action Plan, the conservation framework and strategies towards local biodiversity conservation of Cebu of which the Cebu Flowerpecker is an integral part of.”

  • Order: Passeriformes
  • Family: Dicaeidae
  • Population: 60-70
  • Trend: decreasing
  • Size: 11-12cm

EDGE Score

EDGE Score: 4.88 (?)
ED Score: 7.26 (?)
GE / IUCN Red List (?)
Not Evaluated Data Deficient Least Concern Near Threatened Vulnerable Endangered Critically Endangered Extinct in the Wild Extinct


The species is known from the island of Cebu, Philippines.

Habitat and Ecology

This species lives in association with the tallest remaining forest patches up to 500 metres, most of which are on karst limestone. This species frequents secondary logged areas, but always next to a larger patch of native vegetation.

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This wordcloud illustrates the threats facing this species. The size of each word indicates the extent of a species range that is affected by that threat (larger size means a greater area is affected). The colour of the word indicates how much that threat impacts the species (darker shades of red mean the threat is more severe).

Urban development Crops Mining Roads/Rail Logging Native species

Threat wordcloud key:

Small area affected
Large area affected
Least severe
Most severe
Severity unknown
Source: The IUCN List of Threatened Species. Version 2017.1.
Available at:

Download the survival blueprint for this species below. The survival blueprint is compiled by an EDGE fellow working on the species with input from collaborators and stakeholders. The survival blueprint provides a status review (information on the distribution, protection status, habitat & ecology, threat and stakeholder analysis) and more information on the action programme listed here.

Vision (30-50 years)

There is an increase in the population of Cebu Flowerpecker in an expanding natural forest, maintaining its conservation status.

Goal (5-10 years)

To protect and maintain the breeding population of Cebu Flowerpecker and to promote the connectivity of habitats on the island of Cebu.


To protect and maintain the remaining habitat of the Cebu Flowerpecker and the birds Critical
Conduct research on other potential sites where the Cebu Flowerpecker might still exist and gather more information about the species particularly its breeding biology Critical
Increase the awareness about Cebu Flowerpecker to the people of Cebu most significantly in communities and local leaders where the species is found Critical
Habitat restoration to increase forest cover suitable to the Cebu flowerpecker Critical

Andrew Ross Reintar

  • Project name: Conservation of the Cebu Flowerpecker (Dicaeum quadricolor)
  • Project site: Cebu Island, Philippines
  • Active: 2017 - 2019
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